MICROBIOME

 

The microbiomerefers to the collection of genomes from all the microorganism.The microbiome definition in biology refers to the microorganisms and their genes.

The microbiome is the genetic material of all the microbes(bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses) that live on and inside the human body.

Microorganisms (and their genes) living in a specific environment.

The human microbiome is the aggregate of all microbiota that reside on or within human tissues and biofluids along with the corresponding anatomical sites in which they reside, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary tract, and gastrointestinal tract.

 

MICROBIOTA.

The microbiota only refers to the microbes themselves.

the microorganisms of a particular site, habitat, or geological period.

Microbiota are “ecological communities of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms” found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals. Microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses

STOMACH:

The stomach is a muscular organ present left side of the upper abdomen. The stomach receives food from the esophagus. As food reaches the end of the esophagus, it enters the stomach through a muscular valve called the lower esophageal sphincter. The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food.

Microbiome of Stomach;

The human stomach harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections. The interpretation of these studies relies on a better understanding of inter-individual variations, heterogeneity of bacterial communities along and across the GI tract, functional redundancy and the need to distinguish cause from effect in states of dysbiosis.

Types of  microbiomes of stomach.

  1. bacteria
  2. archaea
  3. Fungi
  4. Protista

It is estimated that 500 to 1,000 species of bacteria live in the human gut but belong to just a few phyla: Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominate but there are also Proteo-bacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Cyano-bacteria.

 

Fungal genera that have been detected in the gut includeCandida, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Trametes, Pleospora, Sclerotinia, Bullera, and GalactomyceArchaea play another  class of gut flora and these are important in the metabolism of the bacterial products and  fermentation.

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