Placental Microbiome and Pregnancy

Placental microbiota is mostly commensalnonpathogenic. Evidence of association of placental microbiome with remote antenatal infection (Urinary tract infection) and with preterm birth are present and this is because of alteration of this microbiome. Early onset sepsis is mostly caused by the E. coli in low weight birth neonates. Streptococcus and Acinetobacter caused the antepartum infections. (Aagaard et al., 2014)

Causes of preterm birth depends on different factors but infection and inflammation are also the part of it. Placental microbiome is the key mediator in preterm birth due to metabolism changes.In preterm pregnancies it is not necessary that bacterial species are pathogenic but altered community structure may cause inflammation which leads to preterm birth. (Antony et al., 2015)

Placental microbiome also can cause obesity in some cases and this can cause preterm birth by increasing inflammation.Another risk of preterm birth is the gestational weight gain. (Antony et al., 2015)

Maternal and fetal health is long term associated with placenta and placenta is not well understood organ. Due to the impairment function of placenta cause different complications during pregnancy. (Cao, Stout, Lee and Mysorekar, 2014)

Gestational diabetesMelitus (GDM) microbiome and placental microbiota are differ from control as lower abundance of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genus.as the lower number of Acinetobacter is associated with adverse metabolic and inflammatory phenotype.(Bassols et al., 2016)

Lower eosinophil count is associated with lower abundance of Acinetobacter in GDM women. it also lowers the placental expression for anti-inflammatory genes like IL-10.IL-10 is the major anti-inflammatory cytokine in tolerance of immunity.(Bassols et al., 2016)

placental microbiome can cause chorioamnionitis which is infection of fetal membrane, amniotic infection and funisitis.F. nucleatum cause colonization in placenta and results in inflammation and localized infection leads to preterm and term still birth.(Fardini et al., 2010)

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