Placental Microbiome Research

Microbiome is the totality of the microbes which shares body spaces. (Antony et al., 2015)

Alteration of placental microbiome cause complications in pregnancy like other gut and vaginal microbiome. (Gomez Arango, Barrett, Callaway and Nitert, 2014)

There is consistent microbiome present in the placenta, but this microbiome is different from those which are reported in other body parts like and urogenital tract. But this microbiome is like the microbiome present in the oral cavity. Thecharacterized microbiota includes Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes,Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutesphyla. E. coli is the most abundant bacterium in the placenta. Staphylococcus is also present in placenta.(Aagaard et al., 2014)

oral microbiome also translocates to placenta.(Fardini et al., 2010)

Comparison of preterm and term placental microbiome shows that both are different from eachother. Preterm is enriched in Burkholderia while the term placenta is enriched in Paenibacilli species. (Cao, Stout, Lee and Mysorekar, 2014)

Using metagenomic techniques it is determined that placental microbiome varies with preterm birth. (Antony et al., 2015)

PTB is associated with most commonly genital Mycoplasma species. It is proved that both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria are present in both preterm and term pregnancies. E. colisurprisingly having high abundance. Listeria monocytogenese and Toxoplasma gondii are also present in the placenta and extra villous trophoblast are the site of entry on them.(Cao, Stout, Lee and Mysorekar, 2014)

Different oral species are also detected in the placenta including Neisseria species and Prevotella tannerae.In placental samples of preterm deliveries Burkholderia, Actinomycetes and Aplhaproteobacteria is present in increased amount and while in the term delivery Paenibacillus is enriched. (Aagaard et al., 2014)

Statistically there is prominentdifference in abundance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria,Aquificae,Chloroflexi in the excess GWG and No excess GWG among preterm women. (Antony et al., 2015)

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