Inside human body, bacteria does not exist freely in cells rather they form a protective layer called biofilm that in case of females reproductive tract extends from vagina to fallopian tubes. This biofilm is highly protected by mucosal layer and it allows several interactions e.g. between vagina and fallopian tubes. In case of microbial imbalance, the integrity of mucosal layer gets significantly affected9. Microbial dysbiosis is greatly linked to female reproduction tract related diseases. One such example is bacterial vaginosis (BV). In state of eubiosis i.e. condition of microbial balance, lactic acid bacteria lives in great harmony with host as described above. When there is a case of bacterial vaginosis i.e. dysbiosis, Lactobacillus population declines and other anaerobic bacterial population roses above normal. This results in drop down of lactic acid concentration while concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFs) and amines rises that alters vaginal normal acidic environment i.e pH gets higher than 4.5. In this condition, the colonizing anaerobic bacteria produces virulence factors that stimulates inflammatory response and causes disruption of epithelial layer10. These series of events most commonly results in bacterial vaginosis and other serious complications e.g. preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease (PD) that could lead to sterility(Bacterial Vaginosis – Symptoms and Causes, 2019).
In short, female reproductive tract microbial consortia impacts females overall health and it’s imbalance could result in serious diseases e.g.endometriosis, gyneococal cancers etc. Ecological interactions that occurs among various microbial taxa in turn influences their activities. In humans and other non-human primates, functional redundancy is found among Lactobacillus species i.e. it’s protection function could be performed by other taxa, which results in stabilization of environment at time of change. Vaginal bacteria alters their gene expression depending on environment. Female reproductive tract microbiota not only contributes towards female health but also shapes/establishes fetal microbiome3.