To study placental microbiome in depth, we must know about the anatomy and structure of placenta. Placenta has two parts one is Chorion frondosum, which is short and fetus produced this part and second one is Decidua basalis, which is derived from the uterine tissues of mother. These two parts are separated from each other with the help of basal plate. Placenta is completely surrounded by membrane which is fetus derived membrane. Fetal originated chronic villi which are finger like outgrowths are present in the disc like placenta and covered by maternal tissues. Exchange of gases and nutrients is possible through this villi which bathed in the blood present in intervillus space, comes from the high blood pressure of maternal side. Fluid is not exchanged exactly. In this way two blood circulations are in close contact with each other which are chronic villi and desidua. Exchange of material is done with the help of diffusion.(5)
Methods used for analysis:
Methods used for analysis of samples have great importance because our whole data is based on the results taken from these techniques. Mostly used techniques in the literature review by me are;
- Whole-genome shotgun sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeqplatform. Filtered microbial DNA sequences were annotated and analyzedwith MG-RAST (ie, Metagenomics Rapid Annotations using SubsystemsTechnology) and R.
- Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
- 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing.
- Metagenomics surveys.
- Culture based.